DMRC contributes significantly in arresting the effects of climate change through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Following projects have been registered under the clean development mechanism which demonstrates savings in CO2 emissions from DMRC activities.
(i) Installation of low GHG emitting rolling stock in metro system, Project No. 1351
(ii) Metro Delhi, India, Project No. 4463
(iii) The MRTS PoA Project No. 9863
(iv) Energy Efficiency measures in DMRC Phase-II (ID. GS1246)
(i) Installation of low GHG emitting rolling stock in metro system Project No. 1351: This was the very 1st CDM project to be registered by DMRC in the year 2007. DMRC has electricity driven mass rapid transit system which uses 4 car or 6 car Rolling Stock on different service lines. The cars are equipped with 3 phase AC traction motors withregenerative braking system. By employing the regenerative braking technology, DMRC's trains are able to ‘generate’ electricity when brakes are applied. On an average 35% of electricity is regenerated and on a per kilometer basis, 5.75 kWh/Km of energy is regenerated. The electricity generated in braking is fed back into the system and is utilized by other trains which are in the loop at different locations on the track and are not in the braking mode. At any given point of time, some trains will be in braking mode as they reach a station, while some will be in powering (accelerating) mode as they leave the station and pick up speed. Some others will be traveling at the required speed before brakes will be applied as the destination station is approached. The electricity regenerated by trains in braking mode is used by trains in other modes of operation. This translates into reduction of load on the grid equivalent to the amount of electricity regenerated. In the absence of regenerative braking system, this requirement for electricity would have been met by drawing power from the national grid. Since the power plants use coal which releases enormous amount of CO2, we have, to that extent, avoided such emissions. For a ten year crediting period (2007 to 2017), the estimated emission reductions are 411,600 t of CO2 (e) i.e. 41,160 tones of CO2 (e) average per year.
So far, DMRC has earned220,591 Carbon Emission Reductions (CERs) and90,004 Voluntary Emission Reductions (VERs) from this project.
(ii)Metro Delhi, India, Project No. 4463: The essence of this project is that the carbon footprint of people travelling by metro is much lesser than that of the same journeys performed by other modes of transport i.e. private vehicles. The non-metro modes of transport are not only less efficient in terms of fuel economy but also are more polluting. The calculation of amount of GHG saved is based on Approved Combined Methodology (ACM)-16 which has been pioneered by DMRC and approved by UNFCCC. The baseline situation is a continuation of traditional modes of transport including buses, taxis, private cars, rickshaws, motorcycles and bikes. In absence of the project the passengers move from their trip origination to their trip destination by buses, taxis, motorized rickshaws, and NMT (Non Motorized Transport).
In the project situation the metro complements other modes of transport and replaces partially trips made by conventional or traditional means of transit by metro. The CDM project replaces trips made by conventional transport modes with metro, being a more efficient, faster, safer and more reliable transport means. Emission reductions are achieved through reducing GHG emissions per passenger-kilometre, comparing conventional modes of transport with metro. The metro has as main environmental aspect that the resource efficiency of transporting passengers in Delhi is improved i.e. emissions per passenger kilometre are reduced compared to the situation without project. Over a seven year crediting period, commencing June 2011, the estimated annual average emission reductions are 5, 29,043 tCO2 (e). So far, DMRC has earned1,091,064 CERs from this project.
(iii) The MRTS PoA Project No. 9863: The MRTS PoA (Programme of Activities) will consist of a series of MRTS projects (like Metro Rail, BRT, LRT, Monorail etc) implemented across India. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (DMRC) will act as a Coordinating / Managing Entity (CME) for the PoA and would provide an open platform for different agencies to participate in the PoA developing their own CPA. . As the proposed transportation system is more efficient compared to the traditional means of transport in the baseline, the project activity achieves emission reductions through improved efficiency in the transportation and calculated per passenger-kilometre. On average, MRT system has lower GHG emissions per passenger kilometre than those used in the absence of the project activity, hence, results in GHG emission reductions. The emission reductions under this programme will therefore be calculated according to the consolidated CDM methodology ACM0016 - “Mass Rapid Transit Projects”. The projects will be implemented under the Programme of Activities (“PoA”) approach and will be designed in such a way that individual, national and international project developers and financers may join the programme to improve the financial viability of the projects with the introduction of carbon revenues. Project has potential to generate more than 6 lakhs CERS annually just from Phase-3 operations.
Upcoming Metro projects across India can avail benefits of CDM through DMRC’s MRTS PoA. DMRC will act as umbrella for all other upcoming MRTS projects interested to join MRTS PoA. (iv) Energy Efficiency measures in DMRC Phase-II (ID. GS1246):Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) is the first metro and railway system in the world which has been registered (Registered on 20th December 2013) with The Gold Standard Foundation with project ID GS1246. Title of the micro scale Project Activity is Energy Efficiency measures in DMRC Phase II stations.
The project activity involves energy efficiency measures undertaken by DMRC in a number of station buildings forming a part of Delhi Metro Phase-II following ECBC Code to the extent possible.
The total annual energy consumption is approximately 70 KWh/sq m for phase-I stations while for phase II stations it is 46.6 KWh/sq m, thus resulting into a total reduction of 23.4 KWh/sq m.
The various energy efficiency measures adopted are as follows
Variable Voltage Variable frequencies (VVVF) drive system in Lift & Escalators
Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) system
Lighting System such as T-8 tube lights with 67 lumen/w efficacy and LED lights at elevated stations
Idling speed of 0.2 m/sec against the normal operating speed of 0.65 m/sec of escalator.
Better architectural design by optimizing space and day light ensuring less energy consumption.
So far, DMRC has earned12,195 VERs from this project.